© Article translated from the book “Negoziazione interculturale, comunicazione oltre le barriere culturali” (Intercultural Negotiation: Communication Beyond Cultural Barriers) copyright Dr. Daniele Trevisani Intercultural Negotiation Training and Coaching, published with the author’s permission. The Book’s rights are on sale and are available for any Publisher wishing to consider it for publication in English and other languages except for Italian and Arab whose rights are already sold and published. If you are interested in publishing the book in English, or any other language, or seek Intercultural Negotiation Training, Coaching, Mentoring and Consulting, please feel free to contact the author from the webstite www.danieletrevisani.com
In the following article we are going to introduce the concept of conversation analysis, a fundamental study that can help you improve your negotiation skills.
To start a productive negotiation analysis, we have to distinguish between 3 different phases:
- “preparing for a negotiation” phase: briefing, data collection, interlocutors analisys, positions analisys, , preparing a list of arguments and agendas, role-playing, action lines development and testing;
- comunication phase or front-line phase: face-to-face contact phase;
- analysis e debriefing phase: negotiation results analysis and preparation to all next phases.
The preparation phase requires you to study the largest possible amount of information, so that you can start the face-to face phase with a situational awareness (knowledge of the facts) and with a cultural awareness (knowledge of basic cultural elements).
The negotation phase represents the negotiating ground, the “moment of truth”, in which the most significant actions take place and, since they’re taking place during conversation, they are irreversible.
The debriefing phase is necessary to absorb information and it includes, at least:
- a behavioral debriefing: our behaviours analysis, mistakes analysis, others’ behaviours analysis, and
- a strategic debriefing: practical implications, results analysis, preparation of all next steps.
Negotiation usually requires different “preparation-contact-debriefing” cicles. For this reason we can assimilate it to a cyclical process.
The Conversation Analysis is one of the most useful branch of knowledge used in the communication field to understand how people interact during face-to face contacts.
From a scientific point of view the CA analyzes how people manage the conversational turns and how they try to interact, but from a practical perspective the AC possible applications are extremely rare. In fact the CA was aimed mostly at social and personal interactions and much less at dialogues between companies.
From a linguistic point of view, the ALM method, by using some concepts of the CA and numerous original additions, tries to “dismantle” the conversation by analyzing it as a set of conversational acts, to study its structure and apply it to the concrete problems of companies and organizations that have to negotiate effectively.
From the semiotic point of view, we can ask ourselves (1) what are the meanings and interpretations of meaning that each actor gives to the individual moves on a relationship level (relational semantics), and (2) what are the practical effects on the relationship itself (relational pragmatics).
Thanks to the analysis of conversational moves and of entire pieces of interaction, it is possible to help managers and negotiators (1) decoding the conversation, and (2) acquiring greater conversational skills.
Furthermore, we can train and educate negotiators to produce a more efficient and aware conversational strategy, even within their own culture.
The conversational moves can be defined as specific actions or “emissions” created by an interlocutor.
Some conversational moves are, for example:
- to assert,
- to anticipate,
- to attack,
- to give up a turn,
- to ask for clarifications
- to conquer the turn
Negotiation can be seen, then, as a set of moves. Each culture makes some of these repertoires its own and expands them, rejecting others, or relegating them to a few communicative areas.
In the Japanese culture, for example, saying a sharp “no” is considered a very rude act, but this does not mean that a Japanese manager can not learn saying “No” in a dry way. Relying on simple stereotypes and taking them as certainties is a mistake.
Each move is related to the subject’s previous moves and to the moves made by others.
In the intra-cultural field there are specific repertoires and coversational rules that are generally shared, while in the intercultural area the level of diversity increases, because in each culture the conversational moves are used differently.
During a negotiation, depending on the relational value, we must pay attention to:
- approaching moves (signs of sympathy, friendship, affection, willingness to collaborate, signs of union, etc.) and
- distancing moves (detachment, antipathy, refusal, willingness to keep one’s distance, etc.).
If we look at the conversation contents during a negotiation, it is important to distinguish between:
- opening moves (exploring new information, widening, broading of conversational field, etc.) and
- closing moves (attempting to conclude, to concretize);
and also between:
- listening moves (empathy, questions, data collection), and
- propositional moves (statements, positions, requests).
For further information see:
- Studio Trevisani Academy’s Webstite For Business Training, Coaching and Mentoring, in Italian
- Dr. Daniele Trevisani’s Website in Italian
- Dr. Daniele Trevisani’s Website in English
- Comunicazioneaziendale.it – Italian website on Business Communication
- Medialab Research Cultural Association for Communication Research
- Dr. Daniele Trevisani Linkedin Profile in English
- Facebook Channel
- YouTube Channel